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Gei·ger count·er

n :  an instrument for detecting the presence and intensity of radiations (as cosmic rays or particles from a radioactive substance) by means of the ionizing effect on an enclosed gas which results in a pulse that is amplified and fed to a device giving a visible or audible indication
Geiger, Hans (Johannes) Wilhelm (1882-1945),
and Müller, Walther (fl 1928), German physicists. Geiger did significant research on atomic theory, radioactivity, and cosmic rays. He developed a number of techniques and instruments for the detection and counting of individual charged particles. With the British physicist Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937), he developed in 1908 the first radiation counter, an instrument that counted alpha particles. With the help of Müller he introduced an improved version of the Geiger counter in 1928. The Geiger-Müller counter marked the introduction of modern electrical devices into radiation research.

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