n : a candle-shaped porcelain filter used chiefly to filter out microorganisms (as from culture media)
Cham•ber•land, Charles-Édouard (1851-1908), French bacteriologist. A close associate of Louis Pasteur, Chamberland devised a number of major new techniques and apparatuses for the study of bacteriology. He discovered that certain spores need twenty minutes boiling at 115°C in order to be killed. His experiments in sterilization led to his development of the autoclave, an apparatus that revolutionized sterilization. His invention of the heated porcelain filter that bears his name later helped in the discovery of microbial exotoxins and the first filterable viruses. The filter's ability to purify drinking water was another enduring benefit. During his career Chamberland participated in Pasteur's experiments and discoveries, eventually having responsibility over the preparation of vaccines.
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